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The Viptela overlay multicast implementation extends native multicast by creating a secure optimized multicast tree that runs on top of the overlay network.

Overlay Multicast Routing Overview

The Viptela overlay multicast software uses PIM Sparse Mode (PIM-SM) for multicasting traffic on the overlay network. PIM-SM builds unidirectional shared trees rooted at a rendezvous point (RP), and each multicast group has one shared tree that is rooted at a single RP. Once a shared tree has been built such that a last-hop router learns the IP address for the multicast source, the router engages in a switchover from the shared tree to initiate the construction of a source (or shortest-path) tree. The source tree uses the lowest metric path between the source and last-hop router, which may be entirely, partially, or not at all congruent with the shared tree.

The Viptela design optimizes multicast packet distribution throughout the overlay network by eliminating packet replication on the ingress router, that is, on the router connected to a multicast source. Instead, the ingress router forwards multicast streams to a vEdge router that is designated to be a replicator, and it is this router that forwards streams to multicast receivers. This design saves bandwidth and computational resources on the ingress router.

The figure below illustrates the Viptela design. Here, the ingress router vEdge-2 forwards the multicast streams from the source at its site to vEdge-1, which is a vEdge router that is designated to be a replicator. vEdge-1 replicates the stream and forwards it to the receiver, which is located behind vEdge-3 at Site 3.

VIptela overlay multicast supports the PIM routing protocol and IGMP.


Viptela overlay multicast supports PIM version 2 (defined in Buy Cheap Amazing Price Vila Side Lace Tshirt Women White Big Discount For Sale Super poHNSz
), with some restrictions.

On the service side, the Viptela software supports native multicast. A vEdge router appears as a native PIM router and establishes PIM neighborship with other PIM routers at a local site. To properly extend multicast trees into the overlay network, a vEdge router may require other supporting routers in a local site. If a PIM-SM RP is required at a site, that function must be provided by a non-Viptela router, because the vEdge router currently has no native support for the rendervouz point functionality. Receivers residing downstream of a vEdge router can join multicast streams by exchanging IGMP membership reports directly with the device, and no other routers are required. This applies only to sites that have no requirement for supporting local sources or PIM SM rendezvouz points.

On the transport side, PIM-enabled vEdge routers originate multicast service routes (called multicast autodiscover routes),sending them via OMP to the vSmart controllers. The multicast autodiscover routes indicate whether the router has PIM enabled and whether it is a replicator. If the router is a replicator and the load threshold has been configured, this information is also included in the multicast autodiscover routes. Each PIM router also conveys information learned from the PIM join messages sent by local-site multicast-enabled routers, including multicast group state, source information, and RPs. These routes assist vEdge routers in performing optimized joins across the overlay when joining existing multicast sources.

vEdge routers support PIM source-specific mode (SSM), which allows a multicast source to be directly connected to the router.


Viptela overlay multicast routing supports the Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) version 2 (defined in RFC 2236 ). vEdge routers use IGMP to process receiver membership reports for the hosts in a particular VPN and to determine, for a given group, whether multicast traffic should be forwarded and state should be maintained. vEdge routers listen for both IGMPv1 and IGMPv2 group membership reports.

Rendezvous Points

The root of a PIM multicast shared tree resides on a router configured to be a rendezvous point (RP). Each RP acts as the RP and the root of a shared tree (or trees) for specific multicast group ranges. In the Viptela overlay network, RPs are non-Viptela routers that reside in the local-site network. The RP function is typically assigned to one or two locations in the network; it is not required at every site. vEdge routers do not currently support the RP functionality, so non-Viptela routers must provide this function in the applicable sites.

The Viptela software supports the auto-RP protocol for distributing RP-to-group mapping information to local-site PIM routers. With this information, each PIM router has the ability to forward joins to the correct RP for the group that a downstream IGMP client is attempting to join. Auto-RP updates are propagated to downstream PIM routers if such routers are present in the local site.


For efficient use of WAN bandwidth, strategic vEdge routers can be deployed and configured as replicators throughout the overlay network. Replicators mitigate the requirement for an ingress router to replicate a multicast stream once for each receiver.

As discussed above, replicators advertise themselves, via OMP multicast-autodiscover routes, to the vSmart controllers in the overlay network. The controllers then forward the replicator location information to the PIM-enabled vEdge routers that are in the same VPN as the replicator.

A replicator vEdge router receives streams from multicast sources, replicates them, and forwards them to multicast receivers. The details of the replication process are discussed below, in the section Multicast Traffic Flow through the Overlay Network.

A replicator is typically vEdge router located at a colo site or another site with a higher-speed, or a high-speed, connection to the WAN transport network.

Multicast Service Routes

vEdge routers send multicast service routes to the vSmart controller via OMP. From these routes, the controller processes and forwards joins for requested multicast groups towards the source address as specified in the original PIM join message that helped originate the OMP multicast service route. The source address can be either the IP address of an RP if the originating router is attempting to join the shared tree or the IP address of the actual source of the multicast stream if the originating router is attempting to join the source tree.

Multicast Traffic Flow through the Overlay Network

Let’s look at a high-level topology of the Viptela overlay network multicast solution to illustrate how traffic from multicast sources is delivered to multicast receivers. The topology contains five vEdge routers:

Now, let’s examine how multicast traffic flows from the sources to the receivers.

The two multicast sources, Source-1 and Source-2, send their multicast streams (the blue stream from Source-1 and the green stream from Source-2) to the RP. Because the destination IP addresses for both streams are at remote sites, the RP forwards them to vEdge-3 for transmission onto the transport/WAN network. vEdge-3 has learned from the vSmart controller that the network has two replicators, vEdge-1 and vEdge-2, and so forwards the two multicast streams to them, without first replicating the streams.

The two replicators have learned from a vSmart controller the locations of multicast receivers for the two streams. The vEdge-1 replicator makes one copy of the green stream and forwards it to vEdge-4, which in turns forwards it to the Receiver-3. The vEdge-2 replicator makes one copy of the green stream, which it forwards to vEdge-5 (from which it goes on to Receiver-4), and it makes two copies of the blue stream, which it forwarda to vEdge-4 and vEdge-5 (and which they then forward to the two receivers).

Now, let's look at the multicast configurations on the five vEdge routers:

On all five of these vEdge routers, PIM must be enabled in the same VPN so that the multicast streams can be transmitted and received.

router multicast-replicator local

by Jennifer

A little about me and this little piece of online real estate… I’ll keep it short.

The blog is live. What will I do with this blog? As I’m writing this, I don’t really have a mastermind plan, but I do know that I love to create… anything and everything. I am a serial entrepreneur at heart. I live for that magical place where you get to see an idea or a dream that you have come to life… whether it’s a new recipe, a new house project, a new business… I love to create. I also love to teach… but not high school math kind of teaching. The teaching that can help someone change their life… life hacks, nutrition tips, how to eat better, exercise better, just be better. I am fairly certain my 27 year old self did not picture my 37 year old self spending my days at home with my 4 tiny amazing humans, but here we are. They are my A-team and they are A-mazing. They are what led me to where I am right now, sitting at home, typing up my first post for a DIY home blog… me and my domesticated self.

So back to the content and what you’ll find here:

– DIY: I grew up the daughter of a very hard working man. He taught me a lot about a lot in this realm. He’s the most talented carpenter I know and a lot of my projects are inspired by him… thanks Dad! I get a certain amount of satisfaction of doing something with my own two hands and then seeing the results of that every day in my own home. My mind drifts with about a dozen new projects daily, but I’m hoping this blog will keep me accountable!

– ORGANIZATION: This is my jam. I am no where near having a completely organized home, but I am working every single day to come up with systems and things to make our life with littles easier. Organization makes a home, I am a big proponent of everything in its place and a place for everything. I want to teach this to my kids as they grow because I believe it transfers over to things outside the home, such as work ethic productivity (this is my business mind talking now… ) If you want some organizational inspiration, stick around.

– DESIGN: This is an area I’m a little less confident in, but am learning everyday. I don’t know if I have one certain style. I follow bloggers for inspiration that are traditional, MCM, bohemian, eclectic, modern… I love it all! I believe that your home should truly make you feel good to be in it and be a reflection of you, not a style definition. I also have the small children constraint when it comes to design in our home. I need things to be resistant to stains, jumping, throwing, and bodily fluids… just saying.

– MOM STUFF: Let’s face it, being a mother doesn’t have to define you, but once you are responsible for the lives of other tiny humans, your life changes. Priorities change, goals change, your time is not your own. I have my fair share of experiences to share in this area so hopefully I can share something useful on here once in a while!

– HEALTHY RECIPES: I’m really good at this if I do say so myself. I have been crafting healthy options since college and my most recent venture is a cold-pressed juice bar in Destin, FL called Formula Fresh. My favorite part of this venture was creating all the recipes and then getting to share them with so many people. When I do post recipes, they will be of the healthy variety, mostly kid-friendly, probably Paleo, they will be my own, and they will be really really good – I’m a perfectionist like that.

And that’s about it. This is my online teaching tool to anyone who wants to learn, my journal to my kids if they aren’t too cool to read this in 10 years, my contribution to the online world… the Gizzi Diaries.

Hope you stay awhile!

Filed Under: Tagged With: , motherhood

X(11532) lies on these lines: {1,372}, {145,9789}, {517,8234}, {3340,8243}, {3679,8230}, {3680,7595}, {7596,7982}, {7962,8239}, {7991,8224}, {8228,11522}, {8233,11523}, {8237,11526}, {8244,11531}, {8246,11533}, {10858,11518}, {10867,11519}, {10885,11520}, {10891,11521}, {11042,11529}, {11211,11224}

X(11533) lies on these lines: {1,21}, {8,4425}, {65,1961}, {145,9791}, {256,3680}, {474,986}, {517,8235}, {1126,4127}, {1283,3295}, {1284,3340}, {1482,9959}, {3145,3746}, {3679,5051}, {3913,3961}, {3944,6871}, {3962,4649}, {4199,11523}, {4220,7991}, {4424,5293}, {4646,5524}, {7962,8240}, {7982,9840}, {8229,11522}, {8238,11526}, {8245,11531}, {8246,11532}, {8391,11527}, {8731,11518}, {10868,11519}, {10892,11521}, {11043,11529}, {11203,11224}

X(11533) = {X(i),X(j)}-harmonic conjugate of X(k) for these (i,j,k): (1,191,5429), (1,2292,846)

X(11534) lies on these lines: {2099,10506}

X(11534) = reflection of X(258) in X(1)

X(11535) lies on these lines: {65,258}, {3679,8382}, {8389,11526}

X(11536) lies on these lines: {6,5449}, {52,54}, {110,6153}, {143,10274}, {265,3574}, {382,1181}, {578,6102}, {9927,10112}

Contributed by Peter Moses, December 27, 2016; see also X(11549).

X(11537) lies on the cubic K018 and these lines: {13, 15}, {23, 11142}, {111, 230}, {395, 523}, {468, 8737}, {524, 11078}, {6104, 7575}

X(11537) = reflection of X(11549) in X(230) X(11537) = reflection of X(396) in the orthic axis X(11537) = line conjugate of U and X(15), where U is any point on the line X(13)X(30) X(11537) = barycentric product X(13)*X(530) X(11537) = barycentric quotient X(i)/X(j) for these (i,j): (530,298), (3457,2378) X(11537) = {X(476),X(1989)}-harmonic conjugate of X(11549) X(11537) = orthogonal projection of X(13) on its trilinear polar X(11537) = inverse of X(13) in its pedal circle

In the plane of a triangle ABC, let O = X(3) = circumcenter, N = X(5) = nine-point center, and A' = reflection of O in BC, and define B' and C' cyclically Nab = N(AOB'), and define Nbc and Nca cyclically Nac = N(AOC'), and define Nba and Ncb cyclically Oa = O(ANabNac), and define Ob and Oc cyclically The triangles ABC and OaObOc are orthologic, and X(11538) = ABC-to-OaObOc orthologic center; and X(5) = OaObOc-to-ABC orthologic center. See Antreas Hatzipolakis and Angel Montesdeoca, Visa Payment Sale Online Clearance Pay With Paypal Maerz Womens 300000 Long Sleeve Jumper zGIOef

X(11538) lies on these lines: {324,9381}, {1370,10155}, {3153,9221}, {5189,7608}, {7394,7612}, {7533,7607}

In the plane of a triangle ABC, let G = X(2) = centroid, and A'B'C' = cevian triangle of G; i,e., A'B'C' = medial triangle A''B''C'' = pedal triangle of G Ma = midpoint of AA', and define Mb and Mc cyclically P = a point (as a function) on the Euler line of ABC Pa = P(A''MbMc), and define Pb and Pc cyclically The triangles ABC and PaPbPc are orthologic. X(11539) = PaPbPc-to-ABC orthologic center, for P = X(2) X(11540) = PaPbPc-to-ABC orthologic center, for P = X(3) X(4) = PaPbPc-to-ABC orthologic center, for P = X(11541) See Antreas Hatzipolakis and Angel Montesdeoca, Hyacinthos 249148

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